Reading and writing is greatly emphasized throughout the school year in first grade. Many students begin first grade with knowledge of letters and sounds and know some words by sight. Letter and word knowledge is built throughout the year as students acquire more sight word recognition and learn to decode more complicated words. A strong emphasis is placed on the comprehension of a story – making predictions, setting, characters, the beginning, middle, end of the story. Students clarify, visualize, predict, infer, summarize, make connections, and form questions about what they are reading. In writing, students learn basic conventions of writing, such as capitalization and ending punctuation. They learn to add “spark” to their writing using describing words. They grow from writing single sentence compositions to crafting longer stories that include a beginning, middle, end, and feeling sentence. First graders study word features as they learn about using short and long vowels in their spelling.